Multidimensional Quality Metrics (MQM) Issue types

Copyright

Copyright ©2014, Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Künstliche Intelligenz GmbH / German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI)
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

Editors

Document status

This document contains a draft list of the MQM issue types. It is subject to frequent and substantial revision and should not be relied upon for implementation.

Feedback

Feedback on this document should be submitted to info@qt21.eu.

Overview

This document defines the issue types used by the Multidimensional Quality Metrics (MQM) framework. It contains a description of the issue types. For a full definition of MQM, please read the MQM definition file at http://www.qt21.eu/mqm-definition/definition-2014-08-14.html.

1. MQM Issue types (normative)

MQM defines a total of 106 issue types, as defined in this section. They are derived from an examination of major quality assessment systems, both ones based on automatic detection of issues and ones based on manual assessment by reviewers. As quality systems differ considerably in the issues they check, the MQM issue types represent a (non-strict) superset of issues found in translations (as product, as opposed to process). The superset is non-strict because it represents an abstraction of various systems and, in some cases, is less granular than actual systems. For example, an existing system might distinguish between four kinds of issues related to whitespace, but MQM would categorize all of them as Whitespace. Information on extending MQM is available in the MQM definition.

MTM issues exist in a hierarchy, with more specific issues lower in the hierarchy constituting “subtypes” of their parents. For example the issue type Terminology is a subtype of the more general issue type Accuracy. Because the issues exist in a hierarchy, rather than as a flat list, MQM can be realized at any level of granularity. At one extreme an MQM-compliant metric could check only two high-level issues, Accuracy and Fluency; at the other extreme a metric could check all 106 issues defined in MQM. In most cases the number of issues checked will be somewhere between these extremes. Guidance on selecting issue sets can be found in MQM definition. As a general rule, metrics should check the fewest number of issues possible to achieve the requirements of users.

This section presents the hierarchy of MQM issues, followed by the detailed description of each issue type.

At the top level, MQM is defined into five major “branches”: Accuracy, Fluency, Verity, Design, and Internationalization. It also contains Other, used for issues that cannot be assigned elsewhere, and Compatibility, a branch that contains deprecated issues that are retained for compatibility with legacy systems, notably the LISA QA Model. These five main branches represet the top level in the MQM hierarchy and themselves may serve as issue types.

Issue type names are not case-sensitive (i.e., “Mistranslation”, “MISTRANSLATION”, “mistranslation”, and “MiStRaNsLaTiOn” are all equivalent). The ID values, however, are case sensitive (and are always lower-case). As a result, implementers should ensure that they do not confuse the two, even though in most cases they are nearly identical.

(2014-08-15): Future versions of this document will contain information on whether the issue types apply to source texts, target texts, or both, and which of the twelve parameters are likely to influence selection and use of these issue types.

1.1. Hierarchical list of issue types

The following list of issue types presents the full list of MQM categories in hierarchy. Clicking on any issue type name will take the reader to the definition of the issue type in the next section.

Ordering is significant in this list. If two issue types at the same level of the hierarchy could apply, the first one in the list should be selected. For example, if it is unclear whether an issue should be categorized as Terminology or Mistranslation, Terminology should be used as it occurs first in the list. In addition, if no specific categories apply precisely at a specific level, the parent should be selected. For example, if an issue can be classified as Mistranslation but none of its daughters apply precisely, then Mistranslation should be selected.

These categories can be represented graphically as shown below (click on image to enlarge as an SVG graphic; this linked image may be saved for offline use using the Save command in the browser):

MQM graphical representation (click to enlarge)

1.2. Detailed listing of MQM issue types

This section lists all MQM issue types in alphabetical order, with the following information:

Name

The name is the English name for the issue type. This name may be localized in other languages or may be changed in a UI to reflect application-specific preferences. (For example, if an existing system is being converted to use MQM categories and already has an issue type called Terminology problem that corresponds to Terminology, the UI may display the existing name but refer to the ID value terminology internally for mapping purposes. For new English-language implementations, however, it is recommended to use the existing name to prevent confusion.)

IDAn XML identifier for the category. This ID is used to refer unambiguously to each issue type and does not change, even if a UI may display other names for the category.
DefinitionA definition of the issue type
MQM Core?(yes|no) Specifies whether the issue is in the MQM core (see the definition of the MQM Core) or not.
Automatable?(yes|no) Informative: Indicates whether the issue may be automatically detected. Users interested in fully automatable subsets of MQM may wish to limit themselves to issues marked with “yes”. This specification does not provide any guidance on how to check issues automatically and detection may require language-specific modules or development. Success in detecting issues depends on factors outside the scope of this specification and individual systems may be able to identify issues not identified as automatable in this specification.
ParentThe parent of the issue type in the hierarchy. Each issue can be understood as a type of its parent.
ChildrenA list of any children to the current issue type.
Example(s)One or more illustrative examples of the issue type
Note(s)Any notes on usage for the issue type.

Jump to: [A][B][C][D][E][F][G][H][I][K][L][M][N][O][P][Q][R][S][T][U][V][W]

Abbreviations

IDinconsistent-abbreviations
DefinitionThe form of abbreviations is inconsistent in the text.
MQM Core?no
Automatable?yes
ParentInconsistency
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • A text uses both “app.” and “approx.” for approximately.
Note(s)

Accuracy

IDaccuracy
DefinitionThe target text does not accurately reflect the source text, allowing for any differences authorized by specifications.
MQM Core?yes
Automatable?no
Parentnone
ChildrenMistranslation, Omission, Untranslated, Addition
Example(s)
Note(s)
  • Most cases of Accuracy are addressed by one of the more specific subtypes listed below.
  • In Machine Translation literature, this category is typically referred to as “Adequacy”.

Added markup

IDadded-markup
DefinitionThe target text has markup added with no corresponding markup in the source.
MQM Core?no
Automatable?yes
ParentMarkup
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • A source segment has no formatting tags, but the target has a set of italic tags.
Note(s)

Addition

ID
DefinitionThe target text includes text not present in the source.
MQM Core?yes
Automatable?yes
ParentAccuracy
Children
Example(s)
  • A translation includes portions of another translation that were inadvertently pasted into the document.
Note(s)

Agreement

IDagreement
DefinitionTwo or more words do not agree with respect to case, number, person, or other grammatical features
MQM Core?no
Automatable?yes
ParentWord form
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • A text reads “They was expecting a report.”
Note(s)

Ambiguity

IDambiguity
DefinitionThe text is ambiguous in its meaning.
MQM Core?no
Automatable?no
ParentContent
ChildrenUnclear reference
Example(s)
  • A text reads “I cannot recommend this too highly.” (The meaning can be that the speaker cannot make a good recommendation or that it is highly recommended.)
Note(s)

Bold/italic

IDbold-italic
DefinitionBold or italics are used incorrectly.
MQM Core?no
Automatable?no
ParentFont
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • A book title should have been italicized, but the italics were omitted.
Note(s)
IDbroken-link
DefinitionA link or cross reference points to an incorrect or nonexistent location
MQM Core?no
Automatable?yes
ParentMechanical
ChildrenDocument-internal, Document-external
Example(s)
  • An HTML document has an href that points to a file that does not exist.
Note(s)

Call-outs and captions

IDcall-outs-captions
DefinitionThere are issues with call-outs (text within a graphic that identifies parts) or captions.
MQM Core?no
Automatable?no
ParentGraphics and tables
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • During localization the location of numbers used for call-outs has been shifted and the call-outs are no longer usable.
Note(s)

Capitalization

IDcapitalization
DefinitionIssues related to capitalization
MQM Core?no
Automatable?yes
ParentSpelling
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • The name John Smith is written as “john smith”
Note(s)

Character encoding

IDcharacter-encoding
DefinitionCharacters are garbled due to incorrect application of an encoding.
MQM Core?no
Automatable?yes
ParentMechanical
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • A text document in UTF-8 encoding is opened as ISO Latin-1, resulting in all “upper ASCII” characters being garbled.
Note(s)

Color

IDcolor
DefinitionColors are used incorrectly
MQM Core?no
Automatable?no
ParentOverall design
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • Headings should be blue but are green instead.
Note(s)

Company style

IDcompany-style
DefinitionThe text violates company/organization-specific style guidelines.
MQM Core?no
Automatable?yes
ParentStyle
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • Company style states that passive sentences may not be used but the text uses passive sentences.
Note(s)

Company terminology

IDcompany-style
DefinitionThe text violates company/organization-specific terminology guidelines.
MQM Core?no
Automatable?yes
ParentTerminology
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • Company-specific terminology guidelines specify that a product be called the “Acme Turbo2000™”, but the text calls it the “Acme Turbo” or the “Turbo200”.
Note(s)Should be used only when it is necessary to distinguish company-specific terminology issues from more general (domain) terminology issues.

Compatibility (Deprecated)

IDcompatibility
DefinitionThe Compatibility extension contains items which may be used for compatibility with legacy metrics even though they would otherwise not be included in MQM. Most of these issue types are taken from the LISA QA Model documentation.
MQM Core?no
Automatable?no
Parentnone
Children

The following issue types (presented without definition) are included in the Compatibility branch:

  1. Application compatibility
  2. Bill of materials/runlist
  3. Book-building sequence
  4. Covers
  5. Deadline
  6. Delivery
  7. Does not adhere to specifications
  8. Embedded text
  9. File format
  10. Functional
  11. Output device
  12. Printing
  13. Release guide
  14. Spines
  15. Style, publishing standards
  16. Terminology, contextually inappropriate
Example(s)
  • A quality process checks the LISA QA Model issue “Book-building sequence” and it is included for compatibility with legacy processes
Note(s)
  • Use of these categories is not recommended and these issue types are to be considered deprecated. They are included only for compatibility with legacy processes.
  • Since Compatibility is not a coherent category, use of this category itself is not recommended in any circumstance, although the children categories listed above may be used for compatibility.

Completeness

IDcompleteness
DefinitionThe text is incomplete
MQM Core?yes
Automatable?no
ParentVerity
ChildrenLists, Procedures
Example(s)
  • A process description leaves out key steps needed to complete the process, resulting in an incomplete description of the process.
Note(s)
  • For cases where material from the source language is not present in a translation, Omission should be used instead.

Content

IDcontent
DefinitionIssues related to content, excluding presentational and/or mechanical issues
MQM Core?yes
Automatable?no
ParentFluency
Children
Example(s)
  • There is a problem with the presentation of information in the text
Note(s)

Corpus conformance

IDcorpus-conformance
DefinitionThe content is deemed to have a level of conformance to a reference corpus. The non-conformance type reflects the degree to which the text conforms to a reference corpus given an algorithm that combines several classes of error type to produce an aggregate rating.
MQM Core?no
Automatable?yes
ParentMechanical
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • A text reading “The harbour connected which to printer is busy or configared not properly” is flagged by a language analysis tool as suspect based on its lack of conformance to an existing corpus.
Note(s)
  • One example of this issue type might involve output from a quality estimation system that delivers a warning that a text has a very low quality estimation score.

Date format

IDdate-format
DefinitionA text uses a date format inappropriate for its locale.
MQM Core?no
Automatable?yes
ParentLocale convention
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • An English text has “2012-06-07” instead of the expected “06/07/2012.”
Note(s)

Date/time

IDdate-time
DefinitionDates or times do not match between source and target.
MQM Core?no
Automatable?yes
ParentMistranslation
Children
Example(s)
  • A German source text provides the date 09.02.09 (=February 9, 2009) but the English target renders it as September 2, 2009.
  • An English source text specifies a time of "4:40 PM" but this is rendered as 04:40 (=4:40 AM) in a German translation.
Note(s)

Design

IDdesign
DefinitionThere is a problem relating to design aspects (vs. linguistic aspects) of the content.
MQM Core?no
Automatable?no
Parent
ChildrenOverall design (layout), Local formatting, Markup, Whitespace, Graphics and tables, Truncation/text expansion, Length
Example(s)
  • A document is formatted incorrectly
Note(s)
  • Design issues may exist either in documentions in isolation (e.g., a second-level heading is formatted as a first-level heading) or in relationship between source and target (e.g., headings are formatted differently between source and target). However, for calculation purposes, Design issues are generally included with Fluency issues for purposes of calculation.

Diacritics

IDdiacritics
DefinitionIssues related to the use of diacritics
MQM Core?no
Automatable?yes
ParentSpelling
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • The Hungarian word bőven (using o with a double acute (˝)) is spelled as bõven, using a tilde (˜), which is not found in Hungarian.
Note(s)

Discourse

IDdiscourse
DefinitionThe discourse structure of the text is inconsistent in a confusing or unclear manner.
MQM Core?no
Automatable?no
ParentInconsistency
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • The text has a mixture of imperatives, descriptions of actions, and lists within a single process, making it difficult to follow the intended course of action.
Note(s)
IDdocument-external-link
DefinitionA link or cross reference points to an incorrect or nonexistent location outside of the same document within which it occurs
MQM Core?no
Automatable?yes
ParentBroken link/cross-reference
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • A link in an HTML document points to a U.S. government URL that has moved and no longer exists.
Note(s)
IDdocument-internal-link
DefinitionA link or cross reference points to an incorrect or nonexistent location within the same document within which it occurs.
MQM Core?no
Automatable?yes
ParentBroken link/cross-reference
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • An internal link refers to the location “#section5” but there is no anchor “section5” in the document.
Note(s)

Duplication

IDduplication
DefinitionContent has been duplicated (e.g., a word or longer portion of text is repeated unintentionally).
MQM Core?no
Automatable?yes
ParentContent
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • A text reads “The man the man whom she saw…”
  • A paragraph appears verbatim twice in a row.
Note(s)

End-user suitability

IDend-user-suitability
DefinitionThe content is not suitable for use by the end user, excluding problems related to suitability for the target locale.
MQM Core?no
Automatable?no
ParentVerity
Children
Example(s)
  • A text describes a process to repair a device, but following the instructions leads to serious damage to the device and potential injury.
  • A text assumes that the reader has knowledge of advanced particular physics, but the target audience does not generally have this knowledge.
Note(s)
  • If the issue relates to the applicability of the content to users in a particular locale, Locale-specific-content should be used instead.
  • End-user suitability generally applies to issues present in the source text, regardless of the target locale.

Entity (such as name or place)

IDentity
DefinitionNames, places, or other “named entities” do not match
MQM Core?no
Automatable?yes
ParentMistranslation
Children
Example(s)
  • The source text refers to Dublin, Ohio, but the target incorrectly refers to Dublin, Ireland.
Note(s)

False friend

IDfalse-friend
DefinitionThe translation has incorrectly used a word that is superficially similar to the source word.
MQM Core?no
Automatable?no
ParentMistranslation
Children
Example(s)
  • The Italian word simpatico has been translated as sympathetic in English.
Note(s)

Fluency

IDfluency
DefinitionIssues related to the form or content of a text, irrespective as to whether it is a translation or not.
MQM Core?yes
Automatable?no
Parent
ChildrenContent, Mechanical, Unintelligible
Example(s)
  • A text has errors in it that prevent it from being understood.
Note(s)
  • If an issue can be detected only by comparing the source and target, it MUST not be categorized as a Fluency issue.

Font, single/double-width (CJK only)

IDsingle-double-width
DefinitionSingle-width characters are used when double-width are intended, or vice versa.
MQM Core?no
Automatable?no
ParentFont
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • A Japanese text includes カタカナ (full-width kana) when specifications required カタカナ (half-width kana) instead, due to a limited display size.
Note(s)

Font

IDfont
DefinitionIssues related to local font usage (i.e., font choices that impact a span of content rather than the global choice of the document).
MQM Core?no
Automatable?no
ParentLocal formatting
ChildrenBold/italic, Wrong size, Font, single/double-width (CJK only)
Example(s)
  • Warning texts are set in sans-serif, but one of them appears in a serif font.
  • A portion of Japanese text is set with an obliqued face (corresponding to italics in the source text) when dot accents should have been used with a non-oblique face.
Note(s)

Footnote/endnote format

IDfootnote-format
DefinitionFootnotes or endnotes are placed inappropriately or use incorrect in-text symbols
MQM Core?no
Automatable?no
ParentOverall design
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • Specifications state that endnotes should be used with roman numerals but footnotes were used with in-text symbols (*, †, ‡, etc.).
Note(s)

Function words

IDfunction-words
DefinitionA function word (e.g., a preposition, “helping verb”, article, determiner) is used incorrectly.
MQM Core?no
Automatable?yes
ParentGrammar
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • A text reads “Check the part number as given in the screen” instead of “…on the screen”.
  • A text reads “The graphic is then copied into an internal memory” instead of “The graphic is copied to internal memory.”
Note(s)

Global font choice

IDglobal-font-choice
DefinitionThe overall font chosen is incorrect or inappropriate.
MQM Core?no
Automatable?no
ParentOverall design
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • A English source text uses a normal-weight serif font for body text but the Japanese translation uses a heavy-weight “gothic” (roughly, sans-serif) font appropriate for headlines only.
Note(s)

Grammar

ID
DefinitionIssues related to the grammar or syntax of the text, other than spelling and orthography.
MQM Core?yes
Automatable?yes
ParentMechanical
ChildrenWord form, Word order, Function words
Example(s)
  • An English text reads “The man was in seeing the his wife.”
Note(s)

Graphics and tables

IDgraphics-tables
DefinitionIssues related to the formatting of graphics and tables.
MQM Core?no
Automatable?no
ParentDesign
ChildrenPosition of graphic/table, Missing, Call-outs and captions
Example(s)
  • A graphic is garbled and the wrong version is shown
Note(s)

Headers and footers

IDheaders-footers
DefinitionHeaders or footers are formatted incorrectly
MQM Core?no
Automatable?no
ParentOverall design
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • Headers should appear on every page but have been omitted on odd-numbered pages.
Note(s)

Images vs. text

IDimages-vs-text
DefinitionPhrasing/wording is inconsistent between text shown in images and running text.
MQM Core?no
Automatable?no
ParentInconsistency
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • A screen shot shows a button with the text “Open other…” but the text referring to the screen shot tells the user to click on the “Open alternative…” button.
Note(s)

Improper exact match

IDimproper-exact-match
DefinitionAn translation is provided as an exact match from a TM system, but is actually incorrect.
MQM Core?no
Automatable?no
ParentMistranslation
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • A TM system returns “Press the Start button” as an exact (100%) match, when the proper translation should be “Press the Begin button”.
Note(s)This issue type applies only in cases where TM technology is used.

Inconsistency

IDinconsistency
DefinitionThe text shows internal inconsistency.
MQM Core?yes
Automatable?no
ParentContent
ChildrenAbbreviations, Images vs. text, Discourse, Terminological inconsistency, Inconsistent link/cross-reference
Example(s)
  • The text states that bug reports should be submitted to a mailing list in one place and via an online bug tracker tool in another.
Note(s)

Inconsistent markup

IDinconsistent-markup
DefinitionMarkup elements are inconsistent between the source and target
MQM Core?no
Automatable?no
ParentMarkup
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • A target text has a set of tags for bold face in the same location where the source has tags for italics.
Note(s)
IDinconsistent-link
DefinitionLinks are inconsistent in the text
MQM Core?no
Automatable?no
ParentInconsistency
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • An HTML file contains numerous links to other HTML files; some have been updated to reflect the appropriate language version while some point to the source language version.
Note(s)

Index/TOC

IDindex-toc
DefinitionIssues related to an index or Table of Contents (TOC).
MQM Core?no
Automatable?yes
ParentMechanical
Children
Example(s)Page references, Index/TOC format, Missing/incorrect item
  • A Table of Contents is missing items that should be included.
Note(s)

Index/TOC format

IDindex-toc-format
DefinitionAn index/TOC is formatted incorrectly
MQM Core?no
Automatable?yes
ParentIndex/TOC
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • A Table of Content should be formatted with variable (hierarchical) indenting and tab leader characters, but is instead displayed as a “run-in” list.
Note(s)

Internationalization

IDinternationalization
DefinitionThere is a problem related to the internationalization of content.
MQM Core?no
Automatable?no
Parentnone
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • A document assumes that all addresses use postal codes conforming to the U.S. “zip+four” convention and includes a verification step for postal codes that does not allow for non-U.S. codes.
Note(s)
  • As of September 2013, the intention is to expand this branch in the future with more specific issue types.

Kerning

IDkerning
DefinitionKerning (inter-character spacing) is wrong.
MQM Core?no
Automatable?no
ParentLocal formatting
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • The letters T and A in the word TAMPA are spaced too close together and collide.
Note(s)

Leading

IDleading
DefinitionLeading (spacing between lines of text) is off
MQM Core?no
Automatable?no
ParentLocal formatting
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • A translated Japanese text has set lines too close together, making the text difficult to read.
Note(s)
IDlegal-requirements
DefinitionA text does not meet legal requirements as set forth in the specifications.
MQM Core?yes
Automatable?no
ParentVerity
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • Specifications stated that FCC regulatory notices be replaced by CE notices rather than translated, but they were translated instead, rendering the text legally problematic for use in Europe.
Note(s)

Length

IDlength
DefinitionThere is a significant discrepancy between the source and the target text lengths.
MQM Core?no
Automatable?yes
ParentDesign
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • An English sentence is 253 characters long but its German translation is 51 characters long.
Note(s)

Lists

IDincomplete-lists
DefinitionA list is missing necessary items
MQM Core?no
Automatable?no
ParentCompleteness
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • A list of items included in a retail package omits a crucial component.
Note(s)

Local formatting

IDlocal-formatting
DefinitionIssues related to local formatting (rather than to overall layout concerns)
MQM Core?no
Automatable?no
ParentDesign
ChildrenText alignment, Paragraph indentation, Font, Kerning, Leading
Example(s)A portion of the text displays a (non-systematic) formatting problem (e.g., a single heading is formatted incorrectly, even though other headings appear properly).
Note(s)

Locale-specific content

IDlocale-specific-content
DefinitionContent specific to the source locale does not apply to the intended target locale, audience, or purpose.
MQM Core?yes
Automatable?no
ParentVerity
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • An advertising text translated for Sweden refers to special offers available only in Germany and therefore is misleading.
  • A manual for a printer sold in Spain describes features that apply only to versions of the printer sold in Japan and thus may confuse purchasers.
Note(s)
  • This issue type is distinguished from Locale-convention in that this category applies to cases where text corresponds to the conventions of the target locale, but does not apply to the intended audience in the target locale. For example, if the Swedish advertising text mentioned above is properly translated and follows all mechanical locale conventions (e.g., using Swedish kronor instead of euros) but the offer does not apply to Sweden, Locale-specific-content should be chosen. If, however, the text applies to the locale, but does not follow locale conventions, Locale-convention should be used instead.

Locale convention

IDlocale-convention
DefinitionThe text does not adhere to locale-specific mechanical conventions and violates requirements for the presentation of content in the target locale.
MQM Core?yes
Automatable?yes
ParentMechanical
ChildrenDate format, Time format, Measurement format, Number format, Quote marks type, National language standard
Example(s)
  • An incorrect format for currency is used for a German text, with a period (.) instead of a comma (,) as a thousands separator.
  • A text translated into Japanese uses Western quote marks to indicate titles rather than the appropriate Japanese quote marks (「 and 」). (Note: this example would be categorized as Quote marks type if the metric includes it.)
Note(s)
  • This issue type is distinguished from Locale-specific-content in that this category refers only to whether the text is given the proper mechanical form for the locale, not whether the content applies to the locale or not. If text conforms to conventions for the locale, but does not apply to the target locale, Locale-specific-content should be used instead.

Margins

IDmargins
DefinitionText margins are incorrect.
MQM Core?no
Automatable?no
ParentOverall design
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • Specifications called for 4 cm inside margins, but 2.5 cm margins were used instead.
Note(s)

Markup

IDmarkup
DefinitionIssues related to “markup” (codes used to represent structure or formatting of text, also known as “tags”).
MQM Core?no
Automatable?yes
ParentDesign
ChildrenInconsistent markup, Misplaced markup, Added markup, Missing markup, Questionable markup
Example(s)
  • Markup is used incorrectly, resulting in incorrect formatting.
Note(s)

Measurement format

IDmeasurement-format
DefinitionA text uses a measurement format inappropriate for its locale.
MQM Core?no
Automatable?yes
ParentLocale violation
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • A text in France uses feet and inches and Fahrenheit temperatures.
Note(s)

Mechanical

IDmechanical
DefinitionIssues related to the presentation and/or mechanics of the text
MQM Core?yes
Automatable?no
ParentFluency
ChildrenSpelling, Typography, Grammar, Locale violation, Character encoding, Nonallowed characters, Pattern problem, Sorting, Corpus conformance, Broken link/cross-reference, Index/TOC
Example(s)
  • While the informational content of a text is correct, it is presented in a mechanically defective fashion.
Note(s)

Misplaced markup

IDmisplaced-markup
DefinitionMarkup is present but misplaced.
MQM Core?no
Automatable?yes
ParentMarkup
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • A segment has three sets of paired formatting tags at the end, after the final full stop (.).
Note(s)

Missing/incorrect item

IDmissing-incorrect-toc-item
DefinitionItems in an index/TOC are incorrect or missing
MQM Core?no
Automatable?yes
ParentIndex/TOC
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • A chapter heading is not listed in a Table of Contents.
Note(s)

Missing graphic/table

IDgraphics-tables-missing
DefinitionA graphic or table is missing.
MQM Core?no
Automatable?no
ParentGraphics and tables
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • An HTML file is missing an <img> tag, so no graphic is shown.
Note(s)

Missing markup

IDmissing-markup
DefinitionMarkup in the source is missing in the target.
MQM Core?no
Automatable?yes
ParentMarkup
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • A source segment has a set of italic tags, but the target text does not have any tags.
Note(s)

Mistranslation

IDmistranslation
DefinitionThe target content does not accurately represent the source content.
MQM Core?yes
Automatable?no
ParentTerminologyAccuracy
ChildrenOverly literal, False friend, Should not have been translated, Date/time, Unit conversion, Number, Entity (such as name or place), Improper exact match
Example(s)
  • A source text states that a medicine should not be administered in doses greater than 200 mg, but the translation states that it should not be administered in doses less than 200 mg.
Note(s)

Monolingual terminology

IDmonolingual-terminology
DefinitionTerms (as opposed to general-language words) are used incorrectly.
MQM Core?no
Automatable?yes
ParentContent
ChildrenNormative monolingual terminology
Example(s)
  • The term piano action should be used but piano mechanism is used instead.
Note(s)

National language standard

IDnational-language-standard
DefinitionA text violates national language standards.
MQM Core?no
Automatable?yes
ParentLocale violation
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • A French advertising text uses anglicisms that are forbidden for print texts by the Academie française specifications.
Note(s)

Nonallowed characters

IDnonallowed-characters
DefinitionThe text includes characters that are not allowed.
MQM Core?no
Automatable?yes
ParentMechanical
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • A text may not include colons or forward- or back-slashes, which might cause confusion with path names on some computer systems, but it contains these characters.
Note(s)

Normative monolingual terminology

IDnormative-monolingual-terminology
DefinitionTerms are used in violation of formal guidelines in a terminology database or other terminology resource.
MQM Core?no
Automatable?yes
ParentMonolingual terminology
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • A text uses the term “Acme TM200" instead of the mandated “Acme TM2000®”.
Note(s)

Normative terminology

IDterminology-normative
Definition A term is translated in a way that does not accord with its normative translation (i.e., a translation mandated in a termbase or other authoritative listing of terms and their translations that was specified for use in the translation) versus general domain usage.
MQM Core?no
Automatable?yes
ParentTerminology
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • A database of legal terms mandates that the English term contract be translated as Auftrag in German, but the more common Vertrag was used.
Note(s)

Number

IDnumber
DefinitionNumbers are inconsistent between source and target.
MQM Core?no
Automatable?yes
ParentMistranslation
Children
Example(s)
  • The source text specifies that a part is 124 mm long but the target text specifies that it is 147 mm long.
Note(s)

Number format

IDnumber-format
DefinitionA text uses a number format inappropriate for its locale.
MQM Core?no
Automatable?yes
ParentLocale violation
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • A German text has 123,456 instead of the locale-appropriate 123.456.
Note(s)

Omission

IDomission
DefinitionContent is missing from the translation that is present in the source.
MQM Core?yes
Automatable?yes
ParentAccuracy
ChildrenOmitted variable
Example(s)
  • A paragraph present in the source is missing in the translation
Note(s)

Omitted variable

IDomitted-variable
DefinitionA variable placeholder is omitted from a translated text
MQM Core?yes
Automatable?yes
ParentOmission
Children
Example(s)
  • A translated text should read “Number of lives remaining: $lifeNumber” but is rendered as “Number of lives remaining:”, with the variable $lifeNumber omitted
Note(s)

Other

IDother
DefinitionUsed for any issues not adequately covered by the MQM core or extensions. This category should be used only if it is impossible to assign an issue to an existing category with sufficient granularity.
MQM Core?no
Automatable?no
Parentnone
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • A quality process checks for errors generated from speech-to-text generated during conference interpretation. Because this error type is highly specific to the specific situation, it is not included in any predefined issue type elsewhere.
Note(s)
  • This category should be used only for any issue type that cannot be mapped to one of the issue types listed above. If an issue type can be considered a more granular example of an existing type, it should be categorized as that type, possibly with a custom extension if the additional granularity is needed.

Overall design (layout)

IDoverall-design
DefinitionIssues related to overall layout and design (versus local formatting)
MQM Core?no
Automatable?no
ParentDesign
ChildrenColor, Global font choice, Footnote/endnote format, Headers and footers, Margins, Widows/orphans, Page breaks
Example(s)
  • A document is formatted incorrectly (e.g., it should have been set up for a print layout but instead is set up for an online presentation.
Note(s)

Overly literal

IDoverly-literal
DefinitionThe translation is overly literal.
MQM Core?no
Automatable?no
ParentMistranslation
Children
Example(s)
  • A Hungarian text contains the phrase Tele van a hocipőd?, which has been translated as “Are your snow boots full?” rather than with the idiomatic meaning of “Feeling overwhelmed?”.
Note(s)

Page breaks

IDpage-breaks
DefinitionPage breaks appear in inappropriate locations.
MQM Core?no
Automatable?no
ParentOverall design
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • There is a page break between a figure and its caption.
Note(s)

Page references

IDpage-references
DefinitionAn index/TOC refers to incorrect page numbers
MQM Core?no
Automatable?yes
ParentIndex/TOC
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • A table of contents refers to page numbers from the source document that do not apply to the translated text.
Note(s)

Paragraph indentation

IDparagraph-indentation
DefinitionA paragraph is indented improperly.
MQM Core?no
Automatable?no
ParentLocal formatting
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • The first line of body paragraphs should be indented 4 mm, but some paragraphs were indented 25 mm instead.
Note(s)

Part of speech

IDpart-of-speech
DefinitionA word is the wrong part of speech
MQM Core?no
Automatable?yes
ParentWord form
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • A text reads “Read these instructions careful” instead of “Read these instructions carefully.”
Note(s)

Pattern problem

IDpattern-problem
DefinitionThe text contains a pattern (e.g., text that matches a regular expression) that is not allowed.
MQM Core?no
Automatable?yes
ParentMechanical
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • The regular expression ["'”’][,\.;] (i.e., a quote mark followed by a comma, full stop, or semicolon) is defined as not allowed for a project but a text contains the string ”, (closing quote followed by a comma).
Note(s)

Position of graphic/table

IDgraphics-tables-position
DefinitionA graphic or table is positioned incorrectly.
MQM Core?no
Automatable?no
ParentGraphics and tables
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • A text refers to Figure 1, but Figure 1 appears six pages after the point where it was referred to.
Note(s)

Procedures

IDincomplete-procedures
DefinitionA procedure is missing necessary steps.
MQM Core?no
Automatable?no
ParentCompleteness
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • A document describing a procedure to restart a diesel generator omits a crucial step that must be completed prior to performing additional steps.
Note(s)

Punctuation

IDpunctuation
DefinitionPunctuation is used incorrectly (for the locale or style)
MQM Core?no
Automatable?no
ParentTypography
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • An English text uses a semicolon where a comma should be used.
Note(s)

Questionable markup

IDquestionable-markup
DefinitionMarkup is present that appears malformed or inappropriate for its context.
MQM Core?no
Automatable?yes
ParentMarkup
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • A text has opening tags but no closing tags for formatting.
Note(s)

Quote mark type

IDquote-mark-type
DefinitionA text uses quote marks inappropriate for its locale.
MQM Core?no
Automatable?yes
ParentLocale violation
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • A French text should use guillemets («») but instead systematically uses German-style quotes („”)
Note(s)

Register

IDregister
DefinitionThe text uses a linguistic register inconsistent with the specifications or general language conventions.
MQM Core?yes
Automatable?yes
ParentContent
ChildrenVariants/slang
Example(s)
  • A legal notice in German uses the informal du instead of the formal Sie.
Note(s)

Should not have been translated

IDno-translate
DefinitionText was translated that should have been left untranslated
MQM Core?no
Automatable?yes
ParentMistranslation
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • A Japanese translation refers to “Apple Computers” as アップルコンピュータ when the English expression should have been left untranslated.
Note(s)

Sorting

IDsorting
DefinitionA list is not in the appropriately collated sequence.
MQM Core?no
Automatable?yes
ParentMechanical
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • A listing of items should be in alphabetical order but appears in a random order instead.
Note(s)

Spelling

IDspelling
DefinitionIssues related to spelling of words
MQM Core?yes
Automatable?yes
ParentMechanical
ChildrenCapitalization, Diacritics
Example(s)
  • The German word Zustellung is spelled Zustetlugn.
Note(s)

Style

IDstyle
DefinitionThe text has stylistic problems, other than those related to language register.
MQM Core?yes
Automatable?no
ParentContent
ChildrenCompany style, Style guide, Unidiomatic
Example(s)
  • A text uses a confusing style with long sentences that are difficult to understand.
Note(s)

Style guide

IDstyle-guide
DefinitionThe text violates style defined in a normative style specification.
MQM Core?no
Automatable?yes
ParentStyle
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • Specifications stated that English text was to be formatted according to the Chicago Manual of Style, but the text delivered followed the American Psychological Association style guide.
Note(s)

Tense/mood/aspect

IDtense-mood-aspect
DefinitionA verbal form displays the wrong tense, mood, or aspect
MQM Core?no
Automatable?yes
ParentWord form
Childrennone
Example(s)An English text reads “After the button is pushing” (present progressive) instead of “After the button has been pushed” (past passive)
Note(s)

Terminological inconsistency

IDterm-inconsistency
DefinitionTerminology is used in an inconsistent manner within the text.
MQM Core?no
Automatable?no
ParentInconsistency
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • The text refers to a component as the brake release lever, brake disengagement lever, manual brake release, and manual disengagement.
Note(s)This issue should not be used to cases where terminology has been translated incorrectly (Accuracy: Terminology) or cases where the wrong term is used in a source document (Fluency: Content: Monolingual Terminology).

Terminology

IDterminology
DefinitionA term (domain-specific word) is translated with a term other than the one expected for the domain or otherwise specified.
MQM Core?yes
Automatable?no
ParentMistranslation
ChildrenNormative terminology, Company terminology
Example(s)
  • A French text translates English e-mail as e-mail but terminology guidelines mandated that courriel be used.
  • The English musicological term dog is translated (literally) into German as Hund instead of as Schnarre, as specified in a terminology database.
Note(s)

Text alignment

IDtext-alignment
DefinitionA portion of a text is aligned inappropriately.
MQM Core?no
Automatable?no
ParentLocal formatting
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • A heading should be left-aligned but was centered instead.
Note(s)

Time format

IDtime-format
DefinitionA text uses a time format inappropriate for its locale.
MQM Core?no
Automatable?yes
ParentLocale violation
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • A text written for the U.S. uses a 24-hour time notation rather than AM/PM time.
Note(s)

Truncation/text expansion

IDtruncation-text-expansion
DefinitionThe target text has insufficient room to display the translated text according to specifications.
MQM Core?no
Automatable?yes
ParentDesign
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • The German translation of an English string in a user interface runs off the edge of a dialogue box and cannot be read.
Note(s)

Typography

IDtypography
DefinitionIssues related to the mechanical presentation of text. This category should be used for any typographical errors other than spelling.
MQM Core?yes
Automatable?yes
ParentMechanical
ChildrenPunctuation, Typography
Example(s)
  • A text uses punctuation incorrectly.
  • A text has an extraneous hard return in the middle of a paragraph.
Note(s)

Unclear reference

IDunclear-reference
DefinitionThe text uses relative pronouns or other referential mechanisms that are unclear as to their reference.
MQM Core?no
Automatable?no
ParentAmbiguity
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • A text reads “After completing this, move to the next step,” but there are a number of possible referents for this in the text.
Note(s)

Unidiomatic

IDunidiomatic
DefinitionThe text is grammatical, but not idiomatic
MQM Core?no
Automatable?no
ParentStyle
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • The following text appears in an English translation of a German letter: “We thanked him with heart” where “with heart” is an understandable, but non-idiomatic rendering, better stated as “heartily”.
Note(s)

Unintelligible

IDunintelligible
DefinitionThe exact nature of the error cannot be determined. Indicates a major break down in fluency.
MQM Core?yes
Automatable?no
ParentFluency
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • The following text appears in an English translation of a German automotive manual: “The brake from whe this કુતારો િસ S149235 part numbr,,."
Note(s)

Unit conversion

IDunit-conversion
DefinitionThe target text has not converted numeric values as needed to adjust for different units (e.g., currencies, metric vs. U.S. measurement systems).
MQM Core?no
Automatable?yes
ParentMistranslation
Children
Example(s)
  • A source text specifies that an item is 25 centimeters (~10 inches) long, but the source states that it is 25 inches (63.5 cm) long.
Note(s)

Unpaired quote marks or brackets

IDunpaired-marks
DefinitionOne of a pair of quotes or brackets—e.g., a (, ) [, ], {, or } character—is missing from text.
MQM Core?no
Automatable?no
ParentTypography
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • A text reads “King Ludwig of Bavaria (1845–1896 was deposed on account of his supposed madness,” omitting the closing parenthesis around the dates.
Note(s)

Untranslated

ID
DefinitionContent that should have been translated has been left untranslated.
MQM Core?yes
Automatable?yes
ParentAccuracy
Children
Example(s)
  • A sentence in a Japanese document translated into English is left in Japanese.
Note(s)

Untranslated graphic

IDuntranslated-graphic
DefinitionText in a graphic was left untranslated.
MQM Core?no
Automatable?yes
Parent
Children
Example(s)
  • Part labels in a graphic were left untranslated even though running text was translated
Note(s)

Variants/slang

IDvariants-slang
DefinitionThe text uses words such as slang that are inappropriate for the intended register.
MQM Core?no
Automatable?yes
ParentRegister
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • A refers to dollars as “clams,” when this slang term would be inappropriate.
Note(s)

Verity

IDverity
DefinitionThe text makes statements that contradict the world of the text
MQM Core?yes
Automatable?no
Parent
Children
Example(s)
  • The text states that a feature is present on a certain model of automobile when in fact it is not available.
Note(s)
  • Verity issues can apply to the source or target text and often emerge during translation when, for example, a factual statement is tru in the source locale but not true in the target locale.

Whitespace

IDwhitespace
DefinitionWhitespace is used incorrectly
MQM Core?no
Automatable?yes
ParentDesign
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • A document uses a string of space characters instead of tabs
  • Extra spaces are added at the start of a string
Note(s)

Widows/orphans

IDwidows-orphans
DefinitionThe text has widows or orphans (single or short lines of text that appear on a separate page from the rest of a paragraph).
MQM Core?no
Automatable?no
ParentOverall design
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • Specifications state that at least two lines of a paragraph must appear on a page (if the paragraph is more than one line), but a single line starts a page while two appear on the previous page.
Note(s)

Word form

IDword-form
DefinitionThere is a problem in the form of a word
MQM Core?no
Automatable?yes
ParentGrammar
ChildrenPart of speech, Agreement, Tense/mood/aspect
Example(s)
  • An English text has becomed instead of became.
Note(s)

Word order

IDword-order
DefinitionThe word order is incorrect
MQM Core?no
Automatable?yes
ParentGrammar
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • A German text reads “Er hat gesehen den Mann” instead of “Er hat den Mann gesehen.”
Note(s)

Wrong size

IDwrong-font-size
DefinitionThe font size is incorrect
MQM Core?no
Automatable?no
ParentFont
Childrennone
Example(s)
  • A legal notice should be set in a 9 pt size, but was instead set in 7 pt.
Note(s)

2. Previous versions (non-normative)

Changes from version 0.1.0